The concept of environmental protection has long been a source of controversy, but the issue has come to the fore more recently with the emergence of eco-religious movements.
These movements are often led by people who are concerned with the plight of the environment and seek to use the issue to advance their political agenda.
One of the first ecotourism organisations, the Ecotourist Federation of Australia, is the latest group to be formed by an Australian environmentalist, the environmentalist-turned-activist Peter Dutton.
“Our environmentalism has been hijacked by some environmentalists who have hijacked the word ecotopia,” Dutton told the ABC in a phone interview.
“They’ve gone into a kind of a witch hunt mode to try and destroy our traditional way of life.
We’ve got to stay positive.”
The term ecotopian is a misnomer, says Dr Andrew Smith, who studies religion and ethics at Griffith University.
The word “ecotopia” was coined in the early 1900s by an American geographer, Arthur George.
George’s description of a “crescent-shaped society” on the Pacific coast of the US was met with scepticism by many in the scientific community.
But in the 1950s, an influential US environmentalist called Fred Singer used the term to describe the Pacific Northwest’s new ecological movement, which was loosely based on the idea that humans were destroying the planet.
“It was a new term to me, and I thought, ‘This is just another name for eco-atheism,'” Smith says.
The concept that humans are destroying the earth is “just a way of saying we are destroying ourselves and destroying nature,” he says.
“If you look at the evidence of human-caused destruction, it’s not quite so easy to get away from the idea of human responsibility.
We are destroying our environment, and there’s no question about that.”
There are many different forms of ecoatheism, but one of the most popular and influential is the “ecological consciousness” movement.
It began in the 1970s with the work of philosopher and activist David Deutsch, who argued that the environment was “an illusion created by humans” to justify their lifestyle choices.
“There’s no way of knowing how much impact humans have on the environment without knowing the extent to which they are responsible for their actions,” Deutsch said.
“I think the most important thing for a society is to have a sense of purpose and a sense that the world is important and it matters to us, that it’s part of who we are.”
It’s this sense of the importance of the natural world that has helped drive the rise of econastia.
A similar ideology is also growing in Australia.
One group of young people, the “Green Left” and “The Green Nation”, are promoting ecofriendly lifestyles, while others are concerned about global warming and the use of fossil fuels.
“The Greens are not the Green Nation,” says Smith.
“Green Nation is not the environmental movement.
We’re the environmental liberation movement.”
The concept ecotopics has also found a home in the United States, where a group of environmental activists are calling themselves the Eco-Environmental Alliance.
Its members believe in a shared vision of environmental stewardship, including sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, and a reduction in the use and extraction of fossil fuel.
The group is also involved in a “green revolution” campaign to end the “human-causing pollution of the planet”.
In Australia, there is also a growing movement called “Ecotopia”.
In the 1990s, it was an alternative to eco-conservatism that drew heavily on the ideas of the ecotouring movement.
The movement’s founders are based in Sydney, and its founder, John Campbell, has been known to speak at conferences and conferences about environmental issues.
But while Campbell is often credited with co-founding the movement, he has not been involved in its political life.
“John Campbell is not a founding member,” says David Karp, a researcher who studies the movement and its origins at the University of Sydney.
“He’s not a co-founder, he’s not an organiser.”
“It’s more a way to build the movement than a part of the movement,” says Karp.
The movement has its roots in the 1980s, when environmentalist Richard Nixon made his anti-environmental remarks. “
So I think the movement has really taken hold.”
The movement has its roots in the 1980s, when environmentalist Richard Nixon made his anti-environmental remarks.
The Nixon administration was also heavily influenced by eco-activists like Robert Muir and the American environmentalist Robert Bryce.
“That was one of those times where people really were looking for an alternative, a way out of the climate mess,” says Professor Smith.
While the movement’s leaders were quick to condemn the President’s comments, they also came to realise that climate change was a very real problem, and that the environmental issues they were